How Motion Data Varies According to Cadence

Hello everyone, this is Saita from LEOMO! Today we’ll be taking a look at how changes in cadence are reflected in TYPE-R MPIs (Motion Performance Indicators).

Cyclists frequently use a wide range of cadences when riding. Within these ranges, each athlete has preferred cadences that they feel more comfortable with, and others that they are less comfortable with. In this post, we’re going to see if changes in cadence result in actual differences in TYPE-R data. Let’s take a look at the TYPE-R MPIs.

The workouts were all completed using indoor trainers, with a power output of 90% FTP. At 90% of FTP, we increased cadence by 10 rpm per minute, starting at 60 rpm and finishing at 130 rpm. The workouts were all conducted using normal road bikes with hands on the hoods. In between 1-minute periods for each cadence, we completed 45-seconds at a normalized cadence and power for the data comparison.

Let’s take a look at the data for one of Japan’s top athletes. (Shown in Table 1, Table 2, and Figure 1 below)

LEOMO TYPE-R Motion Data

At around 90 rpm, a cadence used by many cyclists in racing and training, the right DSS appears significantly larger near 6 o’clock in the pedal stroke. (Shown in Table 1 above and Figure 1 below)

Further, while the left and right Q1 values decrease as cadence decreases, the left and right Foot AR and Leg AR values increase with cadence. (Shown in Table 2 and Figure 1 below)

LEOMO TYPE-R Motion Data

If we take a look at pelvic movements, the Pelvic Rotation decreases as cadence increases. (Table 2, Fig. 1)

The red circles shown in table 2 above indicate data points where variation can be seen in each MPI. Relatively stable data points that do not exhibit significant change are indicated in blue.

LEOMO TYPE-R Motion Data

By looking at DSS at 90 rpm, we can see that there is still room for improvement when it comes to pedaling. While DSS begins to decrease above 100 rpm, we see a significant imbalance emerge between left and right Foot AR and Leg AR. As each movement becomes more rapid when pedaling at high cadences, it is harder for this athlete to focus on body control. Although DSS is decreasing, this rider cannot respond to the high cadence and also maintain smooth pedaling.

The underlying challenge this athlete faces with left-right balance is now apparent. It is important for this athlete to complete workouts based on an understanding of motion analysis at each cadence.


It’s important to remember that each MPI shows variations in motion at a given cadence, as well as trends in these variations. Understanding how the athlete is moving at each cadence makes it easier to identify they challenges they face in correcting these motion patterns.

All road races are conducted on courses with diverse terrain including ascents, flat sections and descents, and require athletes to respond to attacks from competitors. Careful motion analysis allows an athlete to understand their weaknesses at all cadences used in racing. Increasing the range of cadences an athlete is able to use effectively gives the athlete a wider range of options for succeeding in the race.

The TYPE-R can give an athlete a clear understanding of their preferred cadence, which may lead to an improve racing style across a variety of disciplines in cycling.

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